Urology is the surgical & medical specialty that addresses and treats problems of the urinary tract in men and women alike. Disorders of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra are treated in both men and women. These may include tumors, stones, infection, and urinary disorders. In men, disorders of the prostate, penis, testes, and scrotum are included as well, such as prostate cancer and benign prostate enlargement, prostate infection, testis cancer, erectile dysfunction, infertility, vasectomy, and vasectomy reversal. In women, pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence are addressed as well. Complex urinary problems can develop in individuals with neurological disorders such as spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease and stroke.
Investigation of the urinary tract includes a physical exam, urine analysis, and often includes other tests such as blood work, cystoscopy, x-ray examination, and urodynamics.